The Munich Agreement Summary

The 1938 Munich Agreement was a settlement between four European powers. It allowed Nazi Germany to occupy and deny parts of Czechoslovakia, most of which were inhabited by people of German descent. At the time, the agreement was widely seen as a peaceful solution, but Adolf Hitler`s refusal to honour it in the long term called it an act of aborted appeasement. Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister who negotiated with Hitler, was replaced in 1940 by the most combative Winston Churchill. The Munich quotation in foreign policy debates is also common in the 21st century. [107] During negotiations on the Iran nuclear deal by Secretary of State John Kerry, a Republican representative from Texas called the negotiations “worse than Munich.” In a speech in France, Kerry himself referred to Munich for military action in Syria: “This is our munich moment.” [108] One aspect of the huge riots of the past fourteen days must affect anyone who thinks about its history. In the three most powerful countries in Central and Eastern Europe, people had no right to know what was said and done outside. There seems to have been very little news in Russia. In Germany and Italy, the message was deliberately falsified while it was not repressed. The German people were not to know the embassy of President Roosevelt. The Italian people were led to believe that Chamberlain agreed with Hitler and was only putting pressure on Benes. One of his speeches gave them a false version.

On his way back from Munich, Chamberlain told an excited crowd at Heston airport: “It is peace for our time” and he praised the agreement he had signed with Hitler. This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler stopped his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. Within a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany. The Czechoslovakians were appalled by the colony of Munich. They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks describe the Munich agreement as a Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovska diktéta); in Slovak: Mnechovska diktét).